EXPANSION OF STONE MOROCO PSEUDORASBORA PARVA
IN WATER BODIES OF EASTERN EUROPE
D. P. Karabanov, J. V. Kodukhova
Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Science,
Borok, Russia, email@example.com
ЭКСПАНСИЯ ЧЕБАЧКА АМУРСКОГО PSEUDORASBORA PARVA
В ВОДОЕМЫ ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЕВРОПЫ
Д. П. Карабанов, Ю. В. Кодухова
Институт биологии внутренних вод РАН, Борок, Россия, firstname.lastname@example.org
Stone moroco Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck et Schlegel, 1846) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) there is an alien species actively expanding areal. A native areal of a species are water bodies of basin Amur R., Mongolia (Buir-Nuur L.), rivers of the western coast of sea of Japan and Japan, rivers of Southwest Asia (Nichols, 1943; Nikolsky, 1956; Atlas …, 2003). The stone moroco was naturalized in water bodies of Central Asia and Europe as a result of inadvertent introduction.
The stone moroco is a small fish, length 80–100 mm, 120 mm are rare. A body is prolate. A mouth is upper and small. Barbs are not present. D III 6–7, A III 5–6, ll 35–39. Rakers are 8–10. Pharyngeal teeth is single-row, 5–5. The total of vertebras is 33–37. In a natural part of an areal, six subspecies of the stone moroco have been described on the basis of strongly varying plastic characteristic (height of a body, interorbital distance) and even colouring of a body. But diagnostics has been complicated to accounting attributes (quantity of scales in a lateral line). The significant differentiation of the stone moroco to plastic attributes is caused by high ecological and morphological intraspecific plasticity, existence of geographical forms and also with the phenomenon of a sexual dimorphism and age changes. Now the taxonomic status of subspecies of the stone moroco is not examined. In Japan P. parva inhabits together with P. pumila. These two species can hybridize (Konishi et al., 2003).
Practical value of the stone moroco is insignificant. It is a trophic part in trophic chains of Far East predatory fishes. Its role in a feeding predators is negligible because of young fishes are gregarious behaviour, fish protection of laying and a primary habitation of adult fishes to shoals. The part of the stone moroco in a feeding underyearlings of a pike perch can reach 50 % and more in conditions of delution in a pond. The stone moroco is the competitor in a feeding commercial fishes. The stone moroco is capable to eat calf and larvae of commercial fishes. The stone moroco awakely eats mixed fodder in fish farmings. There are data (Trombitsky, Kahovsky, 1987), that it can attack young fishes of silver carps and cupids: it damages integuments and fins of fishes that results in development of a consecutive infection and can produce death of young fishes in fishing ponds. Occasionally the stone moroco is used in sports fishery as a nozzle for predatory fishes.
Modern dilating of areal of the stone moroco is concerned with its inadvertent introduction at works on acclimatization of Far East trade species of fishes in water bodies of Central Asia, austral ranges of Russia, Caucasus, Ukraine and the countries of East and South Europe started from the end of 1950th years.
The stone moroco for the first time is found out in 1972 in fishing ponds of the DniesterRiver on Ukraine (Kozlov, 1974). The find of the stone moroco in a basin DneprRiver and the Ukrainian part of the DanubeRiver occurs practically simultaneously. Presumably, the stone moroco has appeared in these water bodies owing to inadvertent introduction at acclimatization of Far East phytivorous fishes (Weber, 1984). At the present moment the stone moroco is marked in a compound of fish fauna of the Tisa River (Movchan, 2000), and rivers of the Kiev region (Sabodash et al., 2001), right inflow of Dnepr River – Ros River (Kutsokon, 2010) and water bodies of Crimea (Boltachov et al., 2006). The big population of the stone moroco exists in Dnieper water reservoir, where it reaches big sizes – up to 110 mm (by results of 2006). The fragmentary data are available about a finding of the stone moroco in water bodies of Lithuania (Movchan, Smirnov, 1981) and Belarus, in a basin Pripyat river (Kunitsky, Plyuta, 1999).
Inadvertent introduction of the stone moroco in water bodies of East and Austral Europe has been carried out in the beginning of 1960th (Register …, 1981). For the first time the stone moroco has been casually delivered together with young fishes of the grass carp from a basin Yangtze River. (China) in fishing ponds of Romania (Banarescu, 1964). The second center of occurrence P. parva in water bodies of the East Europe was the lakeSkadarskoe which is taking place on border of Montenegro and Albania, where the stone moroco has been strange in 1972 as fodder object for predatory fishes. By 1977 it on Skadarsk limnetic system is settled in lakeSasko and BojanaRiver. By the end of 1970th years through small river Ljubomir the stone moroco penetrate into the VelikaMoravaRiver, concerning to a river basin area of Danube R. Further this species is marked practically in all countries of Balkan peninsula: Croatia (inundated water bodies in basin of Danube R.), Slovenia (basin of Sava R.), Macedonia (lakePrespa), Bulgaria (fishing ponds on Danube R. near of Rusa city) (Karabanov et al., 2010).
In 1980–1990 there is an awake moving the stone moroco in the western direction through the R. Danube. Stone moroco is marked in the majority of water bodies of Romania (Banarescu, 1990), whence further on a basin river Danube this species has penetrated into water bodies of Hungary (Register …, 1981). From Hungary, presumably with a seeding of phytivorous fishes, the stone moroco has got in water bodies of Poland (Kotusz, Witkowski, 1998). However there are data, that the stone moroco was settled on water bodies of Lithuania, Poland and Bulgaria from the Ukrainian populations (quoted on: Wildekamp et al., 1997). In our opinion, its appearance in these countries was consequence not only self-movings, but also inadvertent an introduction with a seeding of food fishes. The second path seems even to more probable if to take into account awakely spent works on acclimatization and a fish farming in second half XX century among countries – members the CMEA. At the same time, how there was a moving the stone moroco, during the present moment it has taken the place in an ecosystem of lakes of Poland and is a stable component of their fish fauna (Kapusta, 2004). The further progression of the stone moroco to the West of Europe is linked to water system Danube – Rhine. In territory of former Czechoslovakia the stone moroco is marked in 1974 in Czech part of the TisaRiver (Zitnan, Holcik, 1976). Later the stone moroco is described for water bodies both Slovakia (Enenkl, 1977), and Czechia (Jankovsky, 1983). Further it is marked, that the stone moroco becomes a prevalent species in territory of former Czechoslovakia and is a numerous and important functional component into water ecosystems (Barus et al., 1984; Kosko et al., 2005; Lusk et al., 2005). From Danube the stone moroco, probably, inpours on territory of Austria where to its occurrence it is not given due attention and by the moment of detection in 1982 the stone moroco forms the big populations in territory of the country (Weber, 1984). The further occurrence of the stone moroco is connected to system of the rivers Elba and Rhine (Gaumert, Elbe, 2000).
Basing on the above-stated data it is possible to ascertain, that the stone moroco continues active expansion on water bodies of Eurasia. Undoubtedly, that so huge dilating of an areal of this species is connected to its’ high ecological plasticity. Both literary, and our data, testify, that the stone moroco easily tolerates deficiency of oxygen and summer high temperature of water, living in coastal shallow zone of water bodies. Also this species has the big reproductive potential as has a high fertility and indiscriminateness to a spawning substratum, fractional spawning and a short life cycle. If the assumption of guarding of laying by the male it even more raises probability of a survival rate of young fishes is true. On our supervision concordant results to the literary data, young fishes of the stone moroco form the gregarious clumps which are settling down on shallow fields that allows young fishes to lower oppression of predators. As adaptation to a gregarious mode of life a young fish have along the body a dark longitudinal side strip. On our supervision, this strip is kept at the majority of mature fishes, that, probably, testifies to gregarious behaviour of the stone moroco during all its’ life. Our supervision do not confirm literary data about salt and cold resistance of these fishes though the high ecological plasticity of a species can assume presence of the conforming aboriginal forms. To all this it is necessary to add: wide spectrum of fish’s feeding – from a zooplankton, a benthos, artificial forages and a detritis, before eating fins and integuments of other fishes, and also consumption of spawn and young fishes and cannibalism. So high adaptable potential promotes fast development of new habitals of fishes.
The areal of the stone moroco has precise longitudinal extent. The average temperature of region where the stone moroco forms large populations, on the average compounds +4 ºС, thus minimal winter temperature seldom alight below –10 ºС. In more severe conditions of habitat of the stone moroco are dated or for water bodies with appreciable human impact and thermal pollution, or to fish farmings. For extirpation with the stone moroco in ponds, the possible measure of extirpation could be «rotation» of a grown fishes, that is after utilization of a pond for cultivation of nonpredatory fishes by the following landing stuffs the young fishes of predators should serve.
Undoubtedly, that so fast and aggressive moving of the stone moroco on water bodies of Eurasia requires steadfast attention and the rigid control of its numerosity and occurrence from the side of humans.
This study was financially supported by President of the Russian Federation Program for Support of Young Scientists (grant no. MK-1793.2011.4).
Zoocenosis — 2011
Біорізноманіття та роль тварин в екосистемах: Матеріали VІ Міжнародної наукової конференції. – Дніпропетровськ: Вид-во ДНУ, 2011. – С. 80-83.