Экологические связи гамазовых клещей (Parasitiformes: Gamasina) с грызунами (Rodentia: Cricetidae) Лапландского заповедника

УДК 595.422(470.21)


L. A. Bespyatova*, G. D. Kataev**

*Institute of Biology KRC RAS, Petrosavodsk, Russia, E-mail: bespyat@krc.karelia.ru
**Lapland Reserve, Monchegorsk, Russia, E-mail: kataev@lapland.ru

Кey words: gamasid mites, rodents, ecological groups

Л. А. Беспятова*, Г. Д. Катаев**

*Институт биологии КНЦ РАН, г. Петрозаводск, Россия, E-mail: bespyat@krc.karelia.ru
**Лапландский заповедник, г. Мончегорск, Россия, E-mail: kataev@lapland.ru

Ключевые слова: гамазовые клещи, грызуны, экологические группы

The study of species composition and ecological relationship of Arthropoda total and exactly gamasina mites is very important for determination their role in biocenosis and for clarification epidemiological and epizootological situation, especially on the protected territory of Lapland reserve, where such kind of works have not done before.

Lapland reserve is situated in the center part of Kola peninsula in the underzone of northern taiga. The material was gathered on the territory of reserve in 1972–1978 in the slope of firgrove in Chunatundra, during autumn inventory of number of small mammals at the stationary Elnyun (67˚39′N, 32˚38′E). Index of relative richness ectoparasites is in marks and is calculated by Pesenco (1982). The separation of gamasinas into ecological groups was made according publications datas (Nelzina 1951; Zemskaya, 1951, 1969).

The study of gamasinas fauna was made on 5 species of Rodentia from Critidae Fisher, 1817 (Clethronomys glareolus Schreber, 1780, C. rufocanus Sundevall, 1846, C. rutilus Pallas, 1779, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1758 and M. oeconomus Pallas, 1779). It was established that gamasofauna is represented by 11 species of gamasina from 8 genus and 5 families (Parasitidae Oudemans, 1901, Rhodacaridae Oudemans, 1902, Laelapidae Berlese, 1892, Haemogamasidae Oudemans, 1926 and Hirstionyssidae Evans et Till, 1966) these who free-living mites – are representatives of two first families and parasitic mites – three of last some.

Parasitic gamasina mites have the highest species riches. Their fauna is represented by 9 species, 6 genus and 3 families: Laelapidae – 5 species (Hypoaspis heselhausi Oudemans, 1918, Laelaps hilaris C. L. Koch, 1836, L. clethrionomydis, Eulaelaps stabularis Lnge, 1955, Eulaelaps stabularis C. L. Koch 1836, Hyperlaelaps arvalis Zachv.,1948), Haemogamasidae – 3 species (Haemogamasus nidi Mich., 1892, H. nidiformes Breg., 1956, H. ambulans Thorell, 1872), Hirstionyssidae – 1 species (Hirstionyssus isabellinus Oudemans, 1913) and they prevaile over their number (their part is 98.6 %). The high diversity of parasite gamasina is provided by species of the family Laelapidae. The fauna of free-living gamasinas is represented only by 2 species, 2 genus and 2 families (ParasitidaePergamasus crassipes Berlese, 1903; RhodacaridaeCyrtolaelaps mucronatus G. et B.Canestrini, 1881), which were rare and single (total part is 1,4 %).

Gamasinas of Lapland reserve have varios living cycles, trophic and topic relationships with rodentias. According topic relationships these are – nidicolous-hole gamasinas (nidicols) and constant (epizoic) parasites. The constant parasites are represented only by 3 species – L. clethrionomydis, L. hilaris and H. arvalis, they prevail over their number (their total part is 84,7 %). The nidicols are more rich in their species – 8 species, from them 6 gamasinas – H. heselhausi, E. stabularis, H. nidi, H. nidiformes, H. ambulans, H. isabellinus with their total part 12,5 % and 2 species of free-living – P. crassipes and C. mucronatus with their part is 1,4 %.

According the type of meals all Gamasinas are divided into zoophagous (1,4 %) and gematophagous (98,6 %). Gematophagous are represented by 2 species (H. isabellinus, H. ambulans) of obligate gematofagous and 7 species (the all rested) of facultative gematofagous too. The total part of the first is 2,8 % and of the second is 95,8 %.

So gamasofauna of 5 species Rodentias on the territory of Lapland reserve is represented by 11 species of gamasinas from 8 genus, 5 families (Parasitidae, Rhodacaridae, Laelapidae, Haemogamasidae and Hirstionyssidae) and is ecologically various: from nidicolous – hole, free-living till constant epizoic parasites, from zoophagous till obligate gematophagous. The ground of fauna consists of the constant parasites, facultative gematophagous – L. hilaris and L. clethrionomydis (81,9 %). Epizootological meaning have L. hilaris, L. clethrionomydis, E. stabularis, H. nidi, H. nidiformes, H. ambulans, H. isabellinus. The most dangerous are dominating 2 species (L. hilaris and L. clethrionomydis) on the territory of Lapland reserve. They are carriers of tularemia.

Zoocenosis — 2005
 Біорізноманіття та роль зооценозу в природних і антропогенних екосистемах: Матеріали ІІІ Міжнародної наукової конференції. – Д.: Вид-во ДНУ, 2005. – С. 328-330.