Environmental aspects of light oil products
I. B. Voronovskiy, A. N. Orel
Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Melitopol, Ukraine,
І. Б. Вороновський, А. Н. Орел
Таврійський державний агротехнічний університет, Мелітополь, Україна
The current stage of development of agricultural production requires the implementation of urgent measures for the protection of the environment. Solving environmental problems requires not only overcome the negative consequences of industrial activity as a cause of environmental turmoil. First of all, it concerns the structure and organisation of the use of technology.
It should be noted that the negative economic situation that has arisen in Ukraine in recent years has led to the degradation of the base of agricultural production, reduction of both quantitative and qualitative parameters of the tractor fleet, and technical production as a whole. Disparity in prices is practically blocked the necessary acquisitions for agriculture. As a result, the most machinery technology park of agricultural enterprises was purchased at a pre-reform time yet. Operating overload exceeds the standard level greatly. Unfortunately, it is impossible neither to realize the measures needed for the overworked machines nor to ensure proper environmental protection.
The most considerable problem is soil and air pollution with large amount of heavy metals originated from engine exhaust fumes. This problem became particularly acute in recent years under intensive operation of technically defective tractor fleet that mostly worked out its amortization period. That results to considerable oil cost overruns (diesel fuel and engine lubricating oil in particular) as well as to significant increasing of emissions.
For our country it is extremely important in the course of transition to market economy to solve the problem of economical and highly efficient oil use being currently exacerbated by the crisis in energy security having both economic and environmental aspects. Agricultural production in Ukraine consumes the following amount of oil products (out of total production): diesel fuel – more than 7 million tons (out of 14 million tons); petrol – 4.5 million tons (10 million tons); oils – 2.8 million tons (5.6 million tons).
Light oil (diesel fuel, petrol) is an easy-flowing liquid that seeps certainly through various leaks. For example, if through leaky pipes of fuel tanks one drop of diesel fuel (0.05 g) is lost per second; it makes up about 5 kg loss daily and 1.5 tons annually. Significant losses of petroleum products occur during the so-called «small» and «large» breath of tanks in which they are stored. This process depends on many factors. Thus, in particular the amount of oil being evaporated in atmosphere depends on: vent valves serviceability (loss of up to 9 %); from ambient temperature (its increasing from 10 to 20 °C may lead to 5 times more loss); the degree of filling of the tank (if it’s 50 % of the volume, the loss increases 5–6 times, and when it is about 20 % – 25–30 times). Much of oil is lost during the refuelling (up to 12 %, that losses take the second place after storing) and poor technical condition of equipment – 7 %. In the course of the maintenance of fuel dispensers and tanks, the sludge oil is drained into the ground 3 days later after each filling. The agricultural machinery idling for these reasons makes up 60 %.
Failure analysis technique shows that the use of poor-quality petroleum products is the reason of failure of power supply systems in more than 50 % of cases; lubrication system – 20 % of cases and the early termination of agricultural machinery operation – in 30 % of cases. Such situation adversely affects the economic conditions as, for example, the restoration of the power unit of the tractor or combine harvester costs farmers 11–29 thousands UAH. However, in EU countries the service of technical quality control of light oil and fluids functions effectively. It was estimated that the expenses cost of farm machinery idling decreases by 70 %.
In order to reduce significantly the amount of emissions of oil into the atmosphere and discharge of sludge into the ground, we propose to introduce measures presupposing to apply the filter-water separators both in the fuel dispensers and fuel supply systems of diesel engines as well as air filters in the neck of the fuel tank while agricultural machinery operating. Execution of these measures enables practically to avoid the emission into the atmosphere of petroleum vapour as well as maintenance of diesel fuel and fuel-dispensers draining. Substantial environmental and economic effects are achieved by means of development and implementation of principally new design of the filter/water separator, which consist of split porous elements: filters, coagulation and water-repellent (dewatering efficiency is 97–99 %, fine solids dropout – 10–15 microns). The life cycle of the filter elements made up more than 960 hours, and coagulating and water-repellent elements it is unlimited; life of the fine filters – more than 1500 operating hours, but from the sludge exclusively water and mechanical impurities were blended.
Thus designed filters and water traps permit to improve dewatering of mineral oil significantly (99 %) and to complete the solids dropout (70 %) as well as to avoid atmospheric emissions of light petroleum vapour (30 %) and the drains to ground (over 20 %), thereby achieving the desired environmental effect of using oil in agricultural production.
Zoocenosis — 2015
Біорізноманіття та роль тварин в екосистемах: Матеріали VІІІ Міжнародної наукової конференції. – Дніпропетровськ: Ліра, 2015. – С. 15-17.